Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for

Terms / Definitions

What is a "Popism"?

A popism is a cross-reference or connection between two creative works in pop culture. Examples include:

  • Playing a song on in a commercial, film, or TV show
  • Making a reference to another by mentioning its title, plot, or characters or quoting lines
  • Showing a movie or TV show inside another movie or TV show (characters watching TV or at the theater)
  • Showing a physical item in another item (character reading a book, CD/album on a stereo, DVD on a shelf)
  • A remixed song, a song that samples another, or a cover version
  • One item that is based on another such as a movie based on a book, or a spin-off TV show
  • A cross-over episode between two TV shows
  • Parodies
  • Sequels, prequels, and remakes
  • ...and more!

What is an "Incoming Connection" or "Outgoing Connection"?

A popism is considered to be a "directional" connection - either incoming or outgoing.

  • If a creative work makes a reference to another creative work, that is an outgoing connection.
  • If a creative work is refered to by another creative work, that is an incoming connection.

The direction depends on your starting point.


The Shining (movie) shows a character reading The Catcher in the Rye (book).

  • If you are on The Shining's page, this is an outgoing connection because the movie makes a reference to the book.
  • If you are on The Catcher in the Rye's page, this is an incoming connection because the book is refered to by the movie.


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