Second Foundation is the third novel published of the Foundation Series by Isaac Asimov, and the fifth in the in-universe chronology. It was first published in 1953 by Gnome Press. Second Foundation consists of two previously published novellas originally published in appearing in Astounding Magazine (with different titles) between 1948 and 1950, making this the third volume in Asimov's Foundation series. Decades later, Asimov wrote two further sequel novels and two prequels. Later writers have added authorized tales to the series. As the Mule comes closer to finding it, the mysterious Second Foundation comes briefly out of hiding to face the threat directly. It is revealed to be a collection of the most intelligent humans in the galaxy, the descendants of Seldon's psychohistorians. While the first Foundation has developed the physical sciences, the Second Foundation has been developing the mental sciences. Using the might of its strongest minds, the Second Foundation ultimately wears down the Mule. His destructive attitude is adjusted to a benevolent one. He returns to rule over his kingdom peacefully for the rest of his life, without any further thought of conquering the Second Foundation. The first Foundation, learning of the implications of the Second, who will be the true inheritor of Seldon's promised future Empire, greatly resents it-and seeks to find and destroy it, believing it can manage without it. After many attempts to unravel the only clue Seldon had given as to the Second Foundation's whereabouts ("at Star's End"), the Foundation is led to believe the Second Foundation is located on Terminus. By developing a technology which causes great pain to telepaths, the Foundation uncover a group of 50 of them, and destroys them, believing it has thereby won. However, the Second Foundation has planned for this eventuality, and has sent 50 of its members to their deaths as martyrs to preserve its anonymity. At the very end, the Second Foundation is revealed to be located on the former Imperial Homeworld of Trantor itself. The clue "at Star's End" was not a physical clue, but instead based on an old saying, "All roads lead to Trantor, and that is where all stars end". Seldon, being a social scientist and not a physical one, placed the two Foundations at "opposite ends" of the galaxy, but not in a physical sense. Foundation was located on Terminus, out in the Periphery of the galaxy, where the Empire's influence was minimal. Second Foundation was hidden on Trantor, where, even in its dying days, the Empire's power and culture was strongest.